(CS)= case study

GEM-2 & GEM-3 handheld

The GEM-2 - How it works
The GEM-2 - How it works - Detailed
Small frequency-domain EM induction sensors
Depth of Investigation for small EM sensors
The GEM-2 multi-frequency EM sensor
GEM-2: detecting pipelines and sinkholes (CS)
Real-time resistivity sounding with a GEM-2
The GEM-3 broadband EM sensor
GEM-3M: A Ground Imager with a Local Navigator

Soil and Groundwater Contamination

Combined frequency-domain EM and electrical resistivity surveys of groundwater flow in Nebraska Sand Hills USA (CS)
Commercial soil impact assessment with the GEM-2
Geophysical characterization and monitoring of subsurface drip irrigation - Powder River Basin Wyoming USA (CS)
Ground Electromagnetic Survey (GEM-2) of subsurface hydrocarbon contaminant dispersion (CS)
Improved Understanding of Permafrost Controls on Hydrology in Interior Alaska
Multi Frequency EM Surveys of Near-Surface Migration Pathways Surrounding a CO2 Injection well
Natural Gas Explosions in Hutchinson Kansas - Locating Abandoned Brine Wells by High-resolution Magnetic and Electromagnetic Survey
Ohio EPA fact sheet - Soil contamination surveys (CS)
Real-time Resistivity Sounding Using A Hand-Held Broadband Electromagnetic Sensor
Reynolds International Technical Summary Sheet: GEM-2 electromagnetic ground conductivity mapping
Using The Electromagnetic Method To Locate Abandoned Brine Wells In Hutchinson Kansas (CS)

Underground Surveys

Detecting and imaging hard-to-find abandoned wells and pipelines (CS)
Comparison of detection of various undreground structures
Cloud chamber buried pipe detection with a GEM-2.pdf
Electromagnetic detection of buried metallic
EM detection of buried metallic objects
Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS)

Undersea Applications

Seafloor characterization by EM benthic profiling (CS)
Mapping of marine surficial sediments by benthic EM profiling
ROV-towed GEM-3 EM sensor (CS)
Fingerprinting of submarine freshwater seepage
Measurement of sea ice thickness

Archaeology & Forensic

Iraq Weapons inspection
Geophysical surveys in Jordan
Archaeological studies with EM in Jordan


GEM-2A broadband airborne EM sensor
Identifying near-surface migration pathways with an airborne EM sensor
Inversion of helicopter EM data
Dielectric mapping using airborne EM data
Quad–quad resistivity in airborne EM mapping
Airborne resistivity and susceptibility mapping
Identification of mineral deposits using airborne EM spectra


GEM-2, GEM-3 and GEM-5 Sensor Configurations
Magnetometers and electro-magnetometers
Conductivity and susceptibility mapping.pdf
Mapping of earth with continuous conductivity variation
Inversion of time-domain airborne EM data
Differential parameter method for airborne EM mapping
Imaging underground structures
Airborne EM mapping
Airborne resistivity data leveling
Subsurface imaging with broadband EM


Diagnosing the_Earth
Planetary exploration with an EM sensor